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Background
The part of a picture that appears to be in the distance; the scenery located far away from the viewer.

Bake oven
A brick oven, sometimes built into one side of the fireplace or sometimes a separate structure built outdoors; often used for baking bread and pastries.

Binder
A machine that reaps and ties stalks of grain in bundles; often featured in Reuben Sallows’ studies of farming in North America at the turn of the century.

Carte de visite
Carte de visite is French for 'visiting card,' as this was a popular use of these small picture cards, becoming customary to exchange them on birthdays and holidays. It is a small-format photograph affixed to card stock. The photographs were typically portraits, produced from glass negatives in unlimited quantities as contact prints, with the image a standard size of 2.5 x 4 inches. They went out of fashion in the 1870s. It is known that early in his career, Reuben Sallows produced carte de visite for the cost of “99 Cents per Dozen, Please COMPARE it with other WORK at double or three times the PRICE.”

Churn
A container in which cream is beaten or shaken in order to form butter -- featured in several of Sallows’ photographs.

Daguerreotype
A photographic process, introduced in 1839, and in use until approximately 1860.

Doukhobors
A group of immigrants from Russia, who settled in western Canada.

Exposure
The amount of light needed to expose a photographic plate or piece of film. In a camera, exposure is determined by the length of time the shutter is open and the size of the opening through which the light passes. The heavy Graphlex camera Sallows used in 1887 required long exposure times, often in excess of 20 seconds.

Fonds
A body of related records and papers created and acquired by an individual or institution.

Foreground
The part of a scene or picture that is closest to and in front of the viewer.

Husk
The dry outer covering or shell found on some fruits or seeds and ears of corn. The act of removing the husk is commonly called husking.

Imprint
The design or seal used, like a signature, to mark the identity of a picture’s creator. While signatures may be placed in many locations on works, most often they are found on the bottom or top edges of the picture or stamped on the back.

Landscape
A photograph, or work of art depicting a scene in nature.

Magic lantern
An optical instrument which used a light source, such as a candle, oil lamp or sunlight and a lens to project an enlarged image of a picture, most commonly onto a wall. This early form of slide projector was popular during Victorian times.

Mangel
A large coarse yellow to reddish orange beet that was primarily grown as food for cattle.

Matte
A heavy cardboard border placed around a photograph, which serves to frame the picture as well as protect it. The photographer’s imprint is frequently found in one of the lower corners.

Photo Card
Commercially-produced photographs mounted on thick card stock, slightly larger than the image. The surrounding card space is usually printed or embossed with the photographer’s name or insignia, while the back usually bears the photographer’s imprint. They were made by a variety of processes in different standard sizes.

Photographic print
Opaque photographs (image or picture), usually positive, commonly produced on photosensitive paper and generally, but not always printed from a negative.

Portrait
A photograph or art work representing a specific person or group of people. Portraits show us what a person looks like as well as revealing something about the subject’s personality.

Postcard
Cards on which a message may be written or printed for mailing without an envelope, usually at a lower rate than that for letters in envelopes. They have an image produced with light-sensitive materials directly on one side of the card.

Scythe
A long curved single-edged blade fastened at an angle to a long handle, used for mowing or reaping.

Shock
A number of grain sheaves or stalks of corn stacked upright in a field for drying.

Stereoscopic card
Double pictures of the same scene that produce a three dimensional image when viewed through a stereoscope. These images were generally captured by a camera with two lenses separated by the same distance as that between human eyes. Landscapes and architectural subjects were frequently portrayed in stereographs.

Stook
A pile of ten to twelve wheat or grain sheaves, which are stood up on end and left leaning on one another in a field. Stooking wheat in the field speeds up the drying process.

Studio portraits
Portraits taken in a professional photographer’s studio, often making use of backdrop or props.

Underbrush
Small bushes, shrubs or trees growing under larger trees in a wood or forest.

Windrow
A row of hay or grain raked up in the field to dry before being hauled to the barn for storage.

 
 
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